History

Here is a chronology of key studies that have added to the ongoing validation of he CSCSS. As with any educational and psychological measure, the CSCSS's validation is informed by on-going research that seeks across diverse groups of youth and across educational settings.

  • 1989: CSCSS developed as needs assessment measure to accompany Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action (Morrison, Furlong, Morrison, & Clontz), which was developed for the California Department of Education. link
  • 1990-1998: CSCSS used by schools to help inform their comprehensive school safety plans.
    • 1995 published article: Who are the victims of school violence? A comparison of student non-victims and multi-victims.     
    • 1997 published article: Drugs and school violence.
    • 2000: published article: Who are the victims of school violence? A comparison of student non-victims and multi-victims. 
    • 2000: published article: Defining school violence victim subtypes: A step toward adapting prevention and intervention programs to match student needs.   
  • 2005: developed CSCSS-SF (Short Form) to streamline use by schools
  • 2011: publish cross-national comparative study of school violence victimization (USA, Israel, and Guatemala)
  • 2013: developed CSCSS-PM (Progress Monitor), which is an even briefer version that can be more easily used by schools multiple times in the same year. (Most school safety surveys are too long to be given even annually and schools need a psychometically sound measure that can be used to monitor school safety conditions on a more regular bases without unduly burdening staff and students. A manuscript describing this version's construct and predictive validity is now available).