Here is a chronology of key studies that have added to the ongoing validation of the MSAI. As with any educational and psychological measure, the MSAI's validation is informed by research across diverse groups of youth and across educational settings.  This process is supported when researchers communicate with each other and share information that advances science and practice.

  • 1998: Original 31-item MSAI developed with sample of males (Smith, Furlong, & Laughlin)
  • 1998: Raging Rick to Tranquil Tom MSAI profiles published (Furlong & Smith)
  • 2002: MSAI revised to included 5 new items for a total of 36 items (Furlong, Smith, & Bates)
  • 2003: Optimism and anger experiences (Boman, Curtis, & Smith)
  • 2006: Australian version of the MSAI validated (Boman, Curtis, Furlong, & Smith)
  • 2012: Multigroup factor analysis completed with samples from five PAC Rim countries (Furlong et al.)

See Research menu section for summaries of these studies. 

© MSAI (Smith & Furlong) 2012